Sunday, August 18, 2019

Enders Game :: essays research papers

Ender’s Game: A Brief Depiction I.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Setting:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Staged in mainly four places. Ender Wiggins childhood town, where he is monitored as a prospective third. He is sent to Battle School, which is a satellite of the earth. Then he ends up on Eros where he attends command school and eventually defeats the buggers. He spends the rest of his days with Valentine on the first human colonization, approximately 50 light-years away from Earth.  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The book takes place in 2190-2200 approx. The advancement of information transportation is significant, in that the ansible is able to transmit information faster than the speed of light, in fact, exactly instantaneous. The starships and fleets they have been able to advance are full on equipped for space and space tugs are similar to barges we have on rivers, and they are used to hull large amounts of materials about space. The fear of buggers is installed within the readers first glance at the book, and maintains constant until the very end when we learn that the buggers are in fact peaceful and loving creatures, unable to communicate that. II.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Protagonist:  ·Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The main character, Andrew (Ender) Wiggin is a young child who endures some of the hardest turmoil any human could undergo. He is very brilliant, cunning, paranoid, determined, and above all loving child who becomes mature and eventually saves the world. We see his brilliance from the start and through his days he has become the god-child, and messiah to all who know his name. His paranoia grows steadily throughout the book, due to his lack of trust in any figure he encounters. Any time they show any hint of compassion or any true emotion, ender assumes its all part of the game and plan to make him the best commander alive. His determination comes at us through many different wavelengths. He is at first solely determined to survive against playground bullies. It evolves into winning the battle games and soon after takes a curve and becomes determination to never play the game again. His most admirable trait though, is without fail the love he rarely but deeply shows for Valentine, his sister and partly companion through and through. He often says in the text that he is not a killer and has never meant to hurt anyone, simply to win the fight and never fight it again. He realizes his true love for the queen-bugger when he hosts her into eventually multiple buggers to start a new world of them.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Twilight Saga 4: Breaking Dawn 5. ISLE ESME

â€Å"Houston?† I asked, raising my eyebrows when we reached the gate in Seattle. â€Å"Just a stop along the way,† Edward assured me with a grin. It felt like I'd barely fallen asleep when he woke me. I was groggy as he pulled me through the terminals, struggling to remember how to open my eyes after every blink. It took me a few minutes to catch up with what was going on when we stopped at the international counter to check in for our next flight. â€Å"Rio de Janeiro?† I asked with slightly more trepidation. â€Å"Another stop,† he told me. The flight to South America was long but comfortable in the wide first-class seat, with Edward's arms cradled around me. I slept myself out and awoke unusually alert as we circled toward the airport with the light of the setting sun slanting through the plane's windows. We didn't stay in the airport to connect with another flight as I'd expected. Instead we took a taxi through the dark, teeming, living streets of Rio. Unable to understand a word of Edward's Portuguese instructions to the driver, I guessed that we were off to find a hotel before the next leg of our journey. A sharp twinge of something very close to stage fright twisted in the pit of my stomach as I considered that. The taxi continued through the swarming crowds until they thinned somewhat, and we appeared to be nearing the extreme western edge of the city, heading into the ocean. We stopped at the docks. Edward led the way down the long line of white yachts moored in the night-blackened water. The boat he stopped at was smaller than the others, sleeker, obviously built for speed instead of space. Still luxurious, though, and more graceful than the rest. He leaped in lightly, despite the heavy bags he carried. He dropped those on the deck and turned to help me carefully over the edge. I watched in silence while he prepared the boat for departure, surprised at how skilled and comfortable he seemed, because he'd never mentioned an interest in boating before. But then again, he was good at just about everything. As we headed due east into the open ocean, I reviewed basic geography in my head. As far as I could remember, there wasn't much east of Brazil†¦ until you got to Africa. But Edward sped forward while the lights of Rio faded and ultimately disappeared behind us. On his face was a familiar exhilarated smile, the one produced by any form of speed. The boat plunged through the waves and I was showered with sea spray. Finally the curiosity I'd suppressed so long got the best of me. â€Å"Are we going much farther?† I asked. It wasn't like him to forget that I was human, but I wondered if he planned for us to live on this small craft for any length of time. â€Å"About another half hour.† His eyes took in my hands, clenched on the seat, and he grinned. Oh well, I thought to myself. He was a vampire, after all. Maybe we were going to Atlantis. Twenty minutes later, he called my name over the roar of the engine. â€Å"Bella, look there.† He pointed straight ahead. I saw only blackness at first, and the moon's white trail across the water. But I searched the space where he pointed until I found a low black shape breaking into the sheen of moonlight on the waves. As I squinted into the darkness, the silhouette became more detailed. The shape grew into a squat, irregular triangle, with one side trailing longer than the other before sinking into the waves. We drew closer, and I could see the outline was feathery, swaying to the light breeze. And then my eyes refocused and the pieces all made sense: a small island rose out of the water ahead of us, waving with palm fronds, a beach glowing pale in the light of the moon. â€Å"Where are we?† I murmured in wonder while he shifted course, heading around to the north end of the island. He heard me, despite the noise of the engine, and smiled a wide smile that gleamed in the moonlight. â€Å"This is Isle Esme.† The boat slowed dramatically, drawing with precision into position against a short dock constructed of wooden planks, bleached into whiteness by the moon. The engine cut off, and the silence that followed was profound. There was nothing but the waves, slapping lightly against the boat, and the rustle of the breeze in the palms. The air was warm, moist, and fragrant – like the steam left behind after a hot shower. â€Å"Isle Esme?† My voice was low, but it still sounded too loud as it broke into the quiet night. â€Å"A gift from Carlisle – Esme offered to let us borrow it.† A gift. Who gives an island as a gift? I frowned. I hadn't realized that Edward's extreme generosity was a learned behavior. He placed the suitcases on the dock and then turned back, smiling his perfect smile as he reached for me. Instead of taking my hand, he pulled me right up into his arms. â€Å"Aren't you supposed to wait for the threshold?'71 asked, breathless, as he sprung lightly out of the boat. He grinned. â€Å"I'm nothing if not thorough.† Gripping the handles of both huge steamer trunks in one hand and cradling me in the other arm, he carried me up the dock and onto a pale sand pathway through the dark vegetation. For a short while it was pitch black in the jungle-like growth, and then I could see a warm light ahead. It was about at the point when I realized the light was a house – the two bright, perfect squares were wide windows framing a front door – that the stage fright attacked again, more forcefully than before, worse than when I'd thought we were headed for a hotel. My heart thudded audibly against my ribs, and my breath seemed to get stuck in my throat. I felt Edward's eyes on my face, but I refused to meet his gaze. I stared straight ahead, seeing nothing. He didn't ask what I was thinking, which was out of character for him. I guessed that meant that he was just as nervous as I suddenly was. He set the suitcases on the deep porch to open the doors – they were unlocked. Edward looked down at me, waiting until I met his gaze before he stepped through the threshold. He carried me through the house, both of us very quiet, flipping on lights as he went. My vague impression of the house was that it was quite large for a tiny island, and oddly familiar. I'd gotten used to the pale-on-pale color scheme preferred by the Cullens; it felt like home. I couldn't focus on any specifics, though. The violent pulse beating behind my ears made everything a little blurry. Then Edward stopped and turned on the last light. The room was big and white, and the far wall was mostly glass – standard decor for my vampires. Outside, the moon was bright on white sand and, just a few yards away from the house, glistening waves. But I barely noted that part. I was more focused on the absolutely huge white bed in the center of the room, hung with billowy clouds of mosquito netting. Edward set me on my feet. â€Å"I'll†¦ go get the luggage.† The room was too warm, stuffier than the tropical night outside. A bead of sweat dewed up on the nape of my neck. I walked slowly forward until I could reach out and touch the foamy netting. For some reason I felt the need to make sure everything was real. I didn't hear Edward return. Suddenly, his wintry finger caressed the back of my neck, wiping away the drop of perspiration. â€Å"It's a little hot here,† he said apologetically. â€Å"I thought†¦ that would be best.† â€Å"Thorough,† I murmured under my breath, and he chuckled. It was a nervous sound, rare for Edward. â€Å"I tried to think of everything that would make this†¦ easier,† he admitted. I swallowed loudly, still facing away from him. Had there ever been a honeymoon like this before? I knew the answer to that. No. There had not. â€Å"I was wondering,'7Edward said slowly, â€Å"if†¦ first†¦ maybe you'd like to take a midnight swim with me?† He took a deep breath, and his voice was more at ease when he spoke again. â€Å"The water will be very warm. This is the kind of beach you approve of.† â€Å"Sounds nice.† My voice broke. â€Å"I'm sure you'd like a human minute or two†¦. It was a long journey.† I nodded woodenly. I felt barely human; maybe a few minutes alone would help. His lips brushed against my throat, just below my ear. He chuckled once and his cool breath tickled my overheated skin. â€Å"Don't take too long, Mrs. Cullen.† I jumped a little at the sound of my new name. His lips brushed down my neck to the tip of my shoulder. â€Å"I'll wait for you in the water.† He walked past me to the French door that opened right onto the beach sand. On the way, he shrugged out of his shirt, dropping it on the floor, and then slipped through the door into the moonlit night. The sultry, salty air swirled into the room behind him. Did my skin burst into flames? I had to look down to check. Nope, nothing was burning. At least, not visibly. I reminded myself to breathe, and then I stumbled toward the giant suitcase that Edward had opened on top of a low white dresser. It must be mine, because my familiar bag of toiletries was right on top, and there was a lot of pink in there, but I didn't recognize even one article of clothing. As I pawed through the neatly folded piles – looking for something familiar and comfortable, a pair of old sweats maybe – it came to my attention that there was an awful lot of sheer lace and skimpy satin in my hands. Lingerie. Very lingerie-ish lingerie, with French tags. I didn't know how or when, but someday, Alice was going to pay for this. Giving up, I went to the bathroom and peeked out through the long windows that opened to the same beach as the French doors. I couldn't see him; I guessed he was there in the water, not bothering to come up for air. In the sky above, the moon was lopsided, almost full, and the sand was bright white under its shine. A small movement caught my eye – draped over a bend in one of the palm trees that fringed the beach, the rest of his clothes were swaying in the light breeze. A rush of heat flashed across my skin again. I took a couple of deep breaths and then went to the mirrors above the long stretch of counters. I looked exactly like I'd been sleeping on a plane all day. I found my brush and yanked it harshly through the snarls on the back of my neck until they were smoothed out and the bristles were full of hair. I brushed my teeth meticulously, twice. Then I washed my face and splashed water on the back of my neck, which was feeling feverish. That felt so good that I washed my arms as well, and finally I decided to just give up and take the shower. I knew it was ridiculous to shower before swimming, but I needed to calm down, and hot water was one reliable way to do that. Also, shaving my legs again seemed like a pretty good idea. When I was done, I grabbed a huge white towel off the counter and wrapped it under my arms. Then I was faced with a dilemma I hadn't considered. What was I supposed to put on? Not a swimsuit, obviously. But it seemed silly to put my clothes back on, too. I didn't even want to think about the things Alice had packed for me. My breathing started to accelerate again and my hands trembled – so much for the calming effects of the shower. I started to feel a little dizzy, apparently a full-scale panic attack on the way. I sat down on the cool tile floor in my big towel and put my head between my knees. I prayed he wouldn't decide to come look for me before I could pull myself together. I could imagine what he would think if he saw me going to pieces this way. It wouldn't be hard for him to convince himself that we were making a mistake. And I wasn't freaking out because I thought we were making a mistake. Not atall. I was freaking out because I had no idea how to do this, and I was afraid to walk out of this room and face the unknown. Especially in French lingerie. I knew I wasn't ready for that yet This felt exactly like having to walk out in front of a theater full of thousands with no idea what my lines were. How did people do this – swallowall their fears and trust someone else so implicitly with every imperfection and fear they had – with less than the absolute commitment Edward had given me? if it weren't Edward out there, if I didn't know in every cell of my body that he loved me as much as I loved him – unconditionally and irrevocably and, to be honest, irrationally – I'd never be able to get up off this floor. But it was Edward out there, so I whispered the words â€Å"Don't be a coward† under my breath and scrambled to my feet. I hitched the towel tighter under my arms and marched determinedly from the bathroom. Past the suitcase full of lace and the big bed without looking at either. Out the open glass door onto the powder-fine sand. Everything was black-and-white, leached colorless by the moon. I walked slowly across the warm powder, pausing beside the curved tree where he had left his clothes. I laid my hand against the rough bark and checked my breathing to make sure it was even. Or even enough. I looked across the low ripples, black in the darkness, searching for him. He wasn't hard to find. He stood, his back to me, waist deep in the midnight water, staring up at the oval moon. The pallid light of the moon turned his skin a perfect white, like the sand, like the moon itself, and made his wet hair black as the ocean. He was motionless, his hands resting palms down against the water; the low waves broke around him as if he were a stone. I stared at the smooth lines of his back, his shoulders, his arms, his neck, theflawless shape of him†¦. The fire was no longer a flash burn across my skin – it was slow and deep now; it smoldered away all my awkwardness, my shy uncertainty. I slipped the towel off without hesitation, leaving it on the tree with his clothes, and walked out into the white light; it made me pale as the snowy sand, too. I couldn't hear the sound of my footsteps as I walked to the water's edge, but I guessed that he could. Edward did not turn. I let the gentle swells break over my toes, and found that he'd been right about the temperature – it was very warm, like bath water. I stepped in, walking carefully across the invisible ocean floor, but my care was unnecessary; the sand continued perfectly smooth, sloping gently toward Edward. I waded through the weightless current till I was at his side, and then I placed my hand lightly over his cool hand lying on the water. â€Å"Beautiful,† I said, looking up at the moon, too. â€Å"It's all right,† he answered, unimpressed. He turned slowly to face me; little waves rolled away from his movement and broke against my skin. His eyes looked silver in his ice-colored face. He twisted his hand up so that he could twine our fingers beneath the surface of the water. It was warm enough that his cool skin did not raise goose bumps on mine. â€Å"But I wouldn't use the word beautiful† he continued. â€Å"Not with you standing here in comparison.† I half-smiled, then raised my free hand – it didn't tremble now – and placed it over his heart. White on white; we matched, for once. He shuddered the tiniest bit at my warm touch. His breath came rougher now. â€Å"I promised we would try† he whispered, suddenly tense. â€Å"If†¦ if I do something wrong, if I hurt you, you must tell me at once.† I nodded solemnly, keeping my eyes on his. I took another step through the waves and leaned my head against his chest. â€Å"Don't be afraid,† I murmured. â€Å"We belong together.† I was abruptly overwhelmed by the truth of my own words. This moment was so perfect, so right, there was no way to doubt it. His arms wrapped around me, holding me against him, summer and winter. It felt like every nerve ending in my body was a live wire. â€Å"Forever,† he agreed, and then pulled us gently into deeper water. The sun, hot on the bare skin of my back, woke me in the morning. Late morning, maybe afternoon, I wasn't sure. Everything besides the time was clear, though; I knew exactly where I was – the bright room with the big white bed, brilliant sunlight streaming through the open doors. The clouds of netting would soften the shine. I didn't open my eyes. I was too happy to change anything, no matter how small. The only sounds were the waves outside, our breathing, my heartbeat†¦ I was comfortable, even with the baking sun. His cool skin was the perfect antidote to the heat. Lying across his wintry chest, his arms wound around me, felt very easy and natural. I wondered idly what I'd been so panicky about last night. My fears all seemed silly now. His fingers softly trailed down the contours of my spine, and I knew that he knew I was awake. I kept my eyes shut and tightened my arms around his neck, holding myself closer to him. He didn't speak; his fingers moved up and down my back, barely touching it as he lightly traced patterns on my skin. I would have been happy to lie here forever, to never disturb this moment, but my body had other ideas. I laughed at my impatient stomach. It seemed sort of prosaic to be hungry after all that had passed last night. Like being brought back down to earth from some great height. â€Å"What's funny?† he murmured, still stroking my back. The sound of his voice, serious and husky, brought with it a deluge of memories from the night, and I felt a blush color my face and neck. To answer his question, my stomach growled. I laughed again. â€Å"You just can't escape being human for very long.† I waited, but he did not laugh with me. Slowly, sinking through the many layers of bliss that clouded my head, came the realization of a different atmosphere outside my own glowing sphere of happiness. I opened my eyes; the first thing I saw was the pale, almost silvery skin of his throat, the arc of his chin above my face. His jaw was taut. I propped myself up on my elbow so I could see his face. He was staring at the frothy canopy above us, and he didn't look at me as I studied his grave features. His expression was a shock – it sent a physical jolt through my body. â€Å"Edward,† I said, a strange little catch in my throat, â€Å"what is it? What's wrong?† â€Å"You have to ask?† His voice was hard, cynical. My first instinct, the product of a lifetime of insecurities, was to wonder what I had done wrong. I thought through everything that had happened, but I couldn't find any sour note in the memory. It had all been simpler than I'd expected; we'd fit together like corresponding pieces, made to match up. This had given me a secret satisfaction – we were compatible physically, as well as all the other ways. Fire and ice, somehow existing together without destroying each other. More proof that I belonged with him. I couldn't think of any part that would make him look like this – so severe and cold. What had I missed? His finger smoothed the worried lines on my forehead. â€Å"What are you thinking?† he whispered. â€Å"You're upset. I don't understand. Did I†¦ ?† I couldn't finish. His eyes tightened. â€Å"How badly are you hurt, Bella? The truth – don't try to downplay it.† â€Å"Hurt?† I repeated; my voice came out higher than usual because the word took me so by surprise. He raised one eyebrow, his lips a tight line. I made a quick assessment, stretching my body automatically, tensing and flexing my muscles. There was stiffness, and a lot of soreness, too, it was true, but mostly there was the odd sensation that my bones all had become unhinged at the joints, and I had changed halfway into the consistency of a jellyfish. It was not an unpleasant feeling. And then I was a little angry, because he was darkening this most perfect of all mornings with his pessimistic assumptions. â€Å"Why would you jump to that conclusion? I've never been better than I am now.† His eyes closed. â€Å"Stop that.† â€Å"Stop what?† â€Å"Stop acting like I'm not a monster for having agreed to this.† â€Å"Edward!'7I whispered, really upset now. He was pulling my bright memory through the darkness, staining it. â€Å"Don't ever say that.† He didn't open his eyes; it was like he didn't want to see me. â€Å"Look at yourself, Bella. Then tell me I'm not a monster.† Wounded, shocked, I followed his instruction unthinkingly and then gasped. What had happened to me? I couldn't make sense of the fluffy white snow that clung to my skin. I shook my head, and a cascade of white drifted out of my hair. I pinched one soft white bit between my fingers. It was a piece of down. â€Å"Why am I covered in feathers?† I asked, confused. He exhaled impatiently. â€Å"I bit a pillow. Or two. That's not what I'm talking about.† â€Å"You†¦ bit a pillow? Why?† â€Å"Look, Bella!† he almost growled. He took my hand – very gingerly – and stretched my arm out. â€Å"Look at that† This time, I saw what he meant. Under the dusting of feathers, large purplish bruises were beginning to blossom across the pale skin of my arm. My eyes followed the trail they made up to my shoulder, and then down across my ribs. I pulled my hand free to poke at a discoloration on my left forearm, watching it fade where I touched and then reappear. It throbbed a little. So lightly that he was barely touching me, Edward placed his hand against the bruises on my arm, one at a time, matching his long fingers to the patterns. â€Å"Oh,† I said. I tried to remember this – to remember pain – but I couldn't. I couldn't recall a moment when his hold had been too tight, his hands too hard against me. I only remembered wanting him to hold me tighter, and being pleased when he did†¦. â€Å"I'm†¦ so sorry, Bella,† he whispered while I stared at the bruises. â€Å"I knew better than this. I should not have – † He made a low, revolted sound in the back of his throat. â€Å"I am more sorry than I can tell you.† He threw his arm over his face and became perfectly still. I sat for one long moment in total astonishment, trying to come to terms – now that I understood it – with his misery. It was so contrary to the way that I felt that it was difficult to process. Theshock wore off slowly, leaving nothing in its absence. Emptiness. My mind was blank. I couldn't think of what to say. How could I explain it to him in the right way? How could I make him as happy as I was – or as I had been, a moment ago? I touched his arm, and he didn't respond. I wrapped my fingers around his wrist and tried to pry his arm off his face, but I could have been yanking on a sculpture for all the good it did me. â€Å"Edward.† He didn't move. â€Å"Edward?† Nothing. So, this would be a monologue, then. â€Å"I'mnot sorry, Edward. I'm†¦ I can't even tell you. I'm so happy. That doesn't cover it. Don't be angry. Don't. I'm really f – â€Å" â€Å"Do not say the word fine.† His voice was ice cold. â€Å"If you value my sanity, do not say that you are fine.† â€Å"But I am: I whispered. â€Å"Bella,† he almost moaned. â€Å"Don't.† â€Å"No. You don't, Edward.† He moved his arm; his gold eyes watched me warily. â€Å"Don't ruin this,† I told him. â€Å"I. Am. Happy.† â€Å"I've already ruined this,† he whispered. â€Å"Cut it out,† I snapped. I heard his teeth grind together. â€Å"Ugh!† I groaned. â€Å"Why can't you just read my mind already? It's so inconvenient to be a mental mute!† His eyes widened a little bit, distracted in spite of himself. â€Å"That's a new one. You love that I can't read your mind.† â€Å"Not today.† He stared at me. â€Å"Why?† I threw my hands up in frustration, feeling an ache in my shoulder that I ignored. My palms fell back against his chest with a sharp smack. â€Å"Because all this angst would be completely unnecessary if you could see how I feel right now! Or five minutes ago, anyway. I was perfectly happy. Totally and completely blissed out. Now – well, I'm sort of pissed, actually.† â€Å"You should be angry at me.† â€Å"Well, I am. Does that make you feel better?† He sighed. â€Å"No. I don't think anything could make me feel better now.† â€Å"T/?af,† I snapped. â€Å"That right there is why I'm angry. You are killing my buzz, Edward.† He rolled his eyes and shook his head. I took a deep breath. I was feeling more of the soreness now, but it wasn't that bad. Sort of like the day after lifting weights. I'd done that with Renee during one of her fitness obsessions. Sixty-five lunges with ten pounds in each hand. I couldn't walk the next day. This was not as painful as that had been by half. I swallowed my irritation and tried to make my voice soothing. â€Å"We knew this was going to be tricky. I thought that was assumed. And then – well, it was a lot easier than I thought it would be. And this is really nothing.† I brushed my fingers along my arm. â€Å"I think for a first time, not knowing what to expect, we did amazing. With a little practice – â€Å" His expression was suddenly so livid that I broke off mid-sentence. â€Å"Assumed? Did you expect this, Bella? Were you anticipating that I would hurt you? Were you thinking it would be worse? Do you consider the experiment a success because you can walk away from it? No broken bones – that equals a victory?† I waited, letting him get it all out. Then I waited some more while his breathing went back to normal. When his eyes were calm, I answered, speaking with slow precision. â€Å"I didn't know what to expect – but I definitely did not expect how†¦ how†¦ just wonderful and perfect it was.† My voice dropped to a whisper, my eyes slipped from his face down to my hands. â€Å"I mean, I don't know how it was for you, but it was like that for me.† A cool finger pulled my chin back up. â€Å"Is that what you're worried about?† he said through his teeth. â€Å"That I didn't enjoy myself?† My eyes stayed down. â€Å"I know it's not the same. You're not human. I just was trying to explain that, for a human, well, I can't imagine that life gets any better than that.† He was quiet for so long that, finally, I had to look up. His face was softer now, thoughtful. â€Å"It seems that I have more to apologize for.† He frowned. â€Å"I didn't dream that you would construe the way I feel about what I did to you to mean that last night wasn't†¦ well, the best night of my existence. But I don't want to think of it that way, not when you were †¦Ã¢â‚¬  My lips curved up a little at the edges. â€Å"Really? The best ever?† I asked in a small voice. He took my face between his hands, still introspective. â€Å"I spoke to Carlisle after you and I made our bargain, hoping he could help me. Of course he warned me that this would be very dangerous for you.† A shadow crossed his expression. â€Å"He had faith in me, though – faith I didn't deserve.† I started to protest, and he put two fingers over my lips before I could comment. â€Å"I also asked him what should expect. I didn't know what it would be for me†¦ what with my being a vampire.† He smiled halfheartedly. â€Å"Carlisle told me it was a very powerful thing, like nothing else. He told me physical love was something I should not treat lightly. With our rarely changing temperaments, strong emotions can alter us in permanent ways. But he said I did not need to worry about that part – you had already altered me so completely.† This time his smile was more genuine. â€Å"I spoke to my brothers, too. They told me it was a very great pleasure. Second only to drinking human blood.† A line creased his brow. â€Å"But I've tasted your blood, and there could be no blood more potent than that†¦ I don't think they were wrong, really. Just that it was different for us. Something more.† â€Å"It was more. It was everything.† â€Å"That doesn't change the fact that it was wrong. Even if it were possible that you really did feel that way.† â€Å"What does that mean? Do you think I'm making this up? Why?† â€Å"To ease my guilt. I can't ignore the evidence, Bella. Or your history of trying to let me off the hook when I make mistakes.† I grabbed his chin and leaned forward so that our faces were inches apart. â€Å"You listen to me, Edward Cullen. I am not pretending anything for your sake, okay? I didn't even know there was a reason to make you feel better until you started being all miserable. I've never been so happy in all my life – I wasn't this happy when you decided that you loved me more than you wanted to kill me, or the first morning I woke up and you were there waiting for me†¦. Not when I heard your voice in the ballet studio† – he flinched at the old memory of my close call with a hunting vampire, but I didn't pause – â€Å"or when you said i do' and I realized that, somehow, I get to keep you forever. Those are the happiest memories I have, and this is better than any of it. So just deal with it.† He touched the frown line between my eyebrows. Tm making you unhappy now. I don't want to do that.† â€Å"Then don't you be unhappy. That's the only thing that's wrong here.† His eyes tightened, then he took a deep breath and nodded. â€Å"You're right. The past is past and I can't do anything to change it. There's no sense in letting my mood sour this time for you. HI do whatever I can to make you happy now.† I examined his face suspiciously, and he gave me a serene smile. â€Å"Whatever makes me happy?† My stomach growled at the same time that I asked. â€Å"You're hungry,† he said quickly. He was swiftly out of the bed, stirring up a cloud of feathers. Which reminded me. â€Å"So, why exactly did you decide to ruin Esme's pillows?† I asked, sitting up and shaking more down from my hair. He had already pulled on a pair of loose khaki pants, and he stood by the door, rumpling his hair, dislodging a few feathers of his own. â€Å"I don't know if I decided to do anything last night,† he muttered. â€Å"We're just lucky it was the pillows and not you.† He inhaled deeply and then shook his head, as if shaking off the dark thought. A very authentic-looking smile spread across his face, but I guessed it took a lot of work to put it there. I slid carefully off the high bed and stretched again, more aware, now, of the aches and sore spots. I heard him gasp. He turned away from me, and his hands balled up, knuckles white. â€Å"Do I look that hideous?† I asked, working to keep my tone light. His breath caught, but he didn't turn, probably to hide his expression from me. I walked to the bathroom to check for myself. I stared at my naked body in the full-length mirror behind the door. I'd definitely had worse. There was a faint shadow across one of my cheekbones, and my lips were a little swollen, but other than that, my face was fine. The rest of me was decorated with patches of blue and purple. I concentrated on the bruises that would be the hardest to hide – my arms and my shoulders. They weren't so bad. My skin marked up easily. By the time a bruise showed I'd usually forgotten how I'd come by it. Of course, these were just developing. I'd look even worse tomorrow. That would not make things any easier. I looked at my hair, then, and groaned. â€Å"Bella?† He was right there behind me as soon as I'd made a sound. â€Å"I'll never get this all out of my hair!† I pointed to my head, where it looked like a chicken was nesting. I started picking at the feathers. â€Å"You would be worried about your hair,† he mumbled, but he came to stand behind me, pulling out the feathers much more quickly. â€Å"How did you keep from laughing at this? I look ridiculous.† He didn't answer; he just kept plucking. And I knew the answer anyway – there was nothing that would be funny to him in this mood. ‘This isn't going to work,† I sighed after a minute. â€Å"It's all dried in. I'm going to have to try to wash it out.† I turned around, wrapping my arms around his cool waist. â€Å"Do you want to help me?† Td better find some food for you,† he said in a quiet voice, and he gently unwound my arms. I sighed as he disappeared, moving too fast. It looked like my honeymoon was over. The thought put a big lump in my throat. When I was mostly feather-free and dressed in an unfamiliar white cotton dress that concealed the worst of the violet blotches, I padded off barefoot to where the smell of eggs and bacon and Cheddar cheese was coming from. Edward stood in front of the stainless steel stove, sliding an omelet onto the light blue plate waiting on the counter. The scent of the food overwhelmed me. I felt like I could eat the plate and the frying pan, too; my stomach snarled. â€Å"Here,† he said. He turned with a smile on his face and set the plate on a small tiled table. I sat in one of the two metal chairs and started snarfing down the hot eggs. They burned my throat, but I didn't care. He sat down across from me. â€Å"I'm not feeding you often enough.† I swallowed and then reminded him, â€Å"I was asleep. This is really good, by the way. Impressive for someone who doesn't eat.† â€Å"Food Network,† he said, flashing my favorite crooked smile. I was happy to see it, happy that he seemed more like his normal self. â€Å"Where did the eggs come from?† â€Å"I asked the cleaning crew to stock the kitchen. A first, for this place. I'll have to ask them to deal with the feathers†¦. † He trailed off, his gaze fixed on a space above my head. I didn't respond, trying to avoid saying anything that would upset him again. I ate everything, though he'd made enough for two. â€Å"Thank you,† I told him. I leaned across the table to kiss him. He kissed me back automatically, and then suddenly stiffened and leaned away. I gritted my teeth, and the question I meant to ask came out sounding like an accusation. â€Å"You aren't going to touch me again while we're here, are you?† He hesitated, then half-smiled and raised his hand to stroke my cheek. His fingers lingered softly on my skin, and I couldn't help leaning my face into his palm. â€Å"You know that's not what I meant.† He sighed and dropped his hand. â€Å"I know. And you're right.† He paused, lifting his chin slightly. And then he spoke again with firm conviction. â€Å"I will not make love with you until you've been changed. I will never hurt you again.†

Friday, August 16, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird Analysis

Themes play an important role in the novel for it presents the main dead or the underlying meaning of the literary work. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the themes are made to surface through the shared feelings and attitudes of the main characters like Scout, Gem and Tactics Finch. The characters' thoughts and conversations, especially the ideas which are repeated in several dialogue exchanges and their actions in significant events also develop the novel's themes. The novel presents the oldest yet timeless conflict between good versus evil.This is evident in most situations and conversations which explored human morality and the innateness of oddness and evilness of people in the society. Tactics Finch represents the moral voice of the novel because he believes that people have aspects of both good and evil, but good will always prevail. He has never lost his faith on the goodness of man amidst the fact that man has also the tendency to do bad things. In the novel, he struggles to defend a black man of false accusation in a racist society but he never gives up and firmly holds on unto the idea that someday the truth and the good will overpower racism in their community.The same theme is manifested through the experiences of Scout and Gem. Tactics, their father, teaches them to believe in the goodness of all people and values and morals guide everyone in their actions but as the story progresses, both children are exposed to the reality that the world isn't really that perfect. Their innocence is stripped away from them through several incidents that made them think twice of their father's belief.Scout, in the beginning, is an innocent and good -hearted little girl who has no experience with the evils of the world but as she encounters racial discrimination in their town, she starts to get confused and questions everything around her. Gem, n the other hand, is older and in the midst Of entering puberty but the effect of the societal prejudice to a convicted black ma n is much graver compared to Scout's. Gem gets frustrated and disappointed to the harsh reality that sometimes justices will not prevail. This leaves him vulnerable and traumatized in an important facet of his life.Harper Lee manages to exhibit children's transition from innocence to maturity. She intelligently portrayed the fact that at some point in time in a significant event, children will be bound to graduate from their innocence and learn the facts about life and its imperfections. With children as the main characters in the novel, education is but obvious for a theme. In the initial chapters, the novel discusses the difference between institutionalized education and education at home. A conflict emerges as Miss Caroline scolds her for being too advance for their class.Scout gets disappointed for being punished because she is taught well in home by her father and their black servant. Miss Caroline even reminds Scout to tell her father that he shouldn't teach his child because he doesn't really know how to. He is in no position to teach for he is not a teacher. This conflict shows criticism to institutionalized education. This presents the conceitedness of teachers and the curriculum in providing education to learners. The system is too strict and traditional in their pedagogies thus resulting to ineffectiveness in developing and molding a child's intelligence and ability.Clearly, Lee expresses a lack of belief in the Institutionalized educational system. Furthermore, this makes one realize that true education is not experienced in school but outside it. Education shouldn't be limited in the four walls of the classroom; instead it should be brought out to the outside world where reality and life lessons are best learned through experience. The novel also presents moral education in question. Scout believes that she learns moral lessons best in home rather in school. Her teachers appear to be hypocritical as they teach things that are not even true in real ity.Scout notices this most obviously when learning about the Holocaust. Miss Gates explains that such oppression of one group of people could never happen in the United States however racial discrimination to black people is very evident in their town. Scout sees conflict with the lesson aught by Miss Gates when she heard her talk about black people and say : â€Å"time somebody taught them a lesson, they thought they was getting' way above themselves, an' the next thing they think they can do is marry us. This makes Scout doubt her education and rather listen to her father than to attend school. Hypocrisy is apparent in the system. The teachers breach what they teach thus emphasizing the incompetence and ineffectiveness of instruction provided by the educational institutions. This further implies that moral education and good values are not necessary best taught in school. Sometimes, it is best learned from other places like ones home. In a town of Macomb, Alabama, Lee illustrate s the complexities of social hierarchy.The well-off Finches are near the top of the pyramid, the Cunningham family are mere farmers thus Stay in the higher bottom above the white-trash Lowell family. These social statuses greatly confuse the children especially the rules that come along with them. Because of the structure, the children are prop bibbed to mingle with other families who are lesser in standing. This frustrates them most especially Scout because she ants to choose her own friends based on her definition of what makes a good person and not because of family income.The novel presents the dilemma of social inequality. The story takes place during the Great Depression thus social standing is as important as survival. People battle with society rules and structure. Lee exhibits how injustice and partiality divides a community and hinders human interaction thus contributing nothing but negativity to the people and the society as a whole. Racism, which is closely related to so cial inequality, is another focus of the novel. Harper Lee creates Macomb as a town separated by race.Harper Lee shows the bitterness that remains in the whites five decades after the end of slavery. This bitterness is best illustrated by the way that the way blacks are still oppressed, not by force but by fear and suppression. California, the Finch's servant is to be exceptionally bright, she even teaches Scout to write in script, but because she is black and a woman she cannot land a better job. The whites belittle and harass the blacks because they firmly believe that they are greater and more superior. This racial tension foreshadows Tom Robinsons case.Right in the beginning, everybody knows that Tom is innocent but because he is a black man, the prejudice jury still convicted him guilty of harassing and raping a white woman. The conclusion of the Tom Robinsons case ends with Tom being shot repeatedly while trying to escape despite his injury. Racism is considered as a social di sease. It brings out the evil nature of man as prejudice and discrimination overpowers conscience and moral code. It is through this novel that people are made to understand how nobody can ever benefit from racism.It only causes the creation of walls teen people thus hindering relationships and interactions to blossom. Lee shows the significance of human perspective in the processing of events and solving of problems. The character's outlook in life is deemed important in the development of the story and how each managed to understand the situation. In the novel, Tactics encourages Scout and Gem to be more considerate of other people and understand their situations. The children shouldn't immediately judge as it is not fair to the others.Tactics urges his children to try to step into other people's shoes to understand how they see he world: â€Å"You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view . Until you climb into his skin and walk around in it. † This lesson helps Scout gain insight into how other people view life and the world. Moreover, this broadens her moral education and social understanding. This theme was evident when Tactics requires Gem to go to Mrs.. Double's house to read to her as punishment for cutting all the flowers in her front yard.Gem didn't like Mrs.. Dubos and claims that she is an awful woman. Tactics tells Gem and Scout to try to understand Mrs.. Double's point of view. She is an old woman, very set her in ways, and she is entirely alone in the world. Gem and Scout agree to visit her and from that experience, they understood how she felt because they were able to see the world from her perspective. Scout applies her father's lesson when she meets Boo Raddled, a black man who kept himself hidden from the public because of the unjust and prejudice treatment.After she walks him home, Scout stands on Boob's porch and imagines many of the events of the story (Tactics shooting the mad dog the chil dren finding Boob's presents in the oak tree) as they must have looked to Boo. She then last realizes the love and protection that he has silently offered her and Gem all along. Scout's ability to assume another person's perspective sympathetically is the culmination of the novel. The final theme and probably the most significant is the mockingbird which represents the idea of innocence. Remember it's a sin to kill a mockingbird. † That was the only time I ever heard Tactics say it was a sin to do something, and I asked Miss Maude about it. â€Å"Your father's right,† she said. â€Å"Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy .. .But sing their hearts out for us. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird. † When Scout and Gem receive arraigns for Christmas, Tactics tells them that although he would prefer that they practice their shooting with tin cans, if they must shoot at living things, they must never shoot at mockingbirds.Tactics explai ns that it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. Clearly, this is the title scene, but the theme continues throughout the book. Miss Maude explains why Tactics is correct – mockingbirds never do anyone any harm, and are not pests in any way. All they do is sing beautifully and live peacefully. Therefore, it is a sin to kill them. The mockingbird represents true goodness and purity. Tom Robinson is one example of a human â€Å"mockingbird†. He is accused of raping and beating Malay Lowell, but is innocent of the charges.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Don Quixote Response

Michael B Reader Response (Don Quixote) Don Quixote is an alias taken up by a middle aged man in La Mancha Spain who has driven himself mad through the reading of old chivalrous stories that tell of knights and great battles. He soon decides to become a knight and after finding and fixes his old family armor sets off for adventures and glory. Obviously these books have had profound effects on him as he loses his grip on reality. The first incident happens when he comes upon an inn that he believes to be a castle where he insists that the innkeeper, who he believes to be a king, knight him.He spends the entire night there until he gets into a fight with some men who try to take his armor out of their mule’s trough and he attacks them. Soon after the innkeeper pronounces him a knight simply to be rid of him. Cervantes draws the reader in with his use of Don Quixote’s perspective. Quixote sees what his imagination creates from these stories he’s read and not what is actually there or happening. Later after he leaves the inn Don Quixote hears crying and comes across a boy being flogged by a farmer.When questioned the farmer explains that the boy has been failing in his duties but the boy tells Quixote that the farmer has not been paying him. Don Quixote hearing this thinks that the farmer is a knight and tells the man to pay the boy. When the boy tries to explain that the farmer is not a knight Quixote ignores him and asks the farmer to swear on his knighthood that he will pay the boy and once Quixote leaves the farmer continues to beat the boy but this time more severely.Cervantes here gives us a perfect example of why the modern term Quixotism was coined from the novel Don Quixote. The definition of quixotism is when someone has succumbed to misguided idealism. In this scene Don Quixote because of his misplaced faith in the old stories of chivalry intervenes in a situation and only succeeds in making things worse for the boy he had originally tried to help.Another example of this Quixotism in the novel is when Don Quixote attacks a windmill believing it to be giants and ends up making himself look foolish in front of his squire who for some reason tries to ignore the fact that his master is clearly unhinged mentally. This brings to mind that although Quixote’s actions are admirable they are doomed to fail because he is out of touch with the world he lives in. Both of these situations show that our intentions however admirable may succumb to failure if the onsequences of our actions are not considered. Opposingly it was G. K. Chesterton a British journalist of the time that claims that by writing from this perspective it made it difficult for â€Å"modern† men and women (of their time) to take the values of chivalry seriously. Don Quixote can be looked at from many different angles whether they be as a commentary on chivalry, a comedy, or even a more philosophical way considering the idealism Don Quixote is so known for.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Advertising Appeals

Dissertation On Study of advertising appeals used by the top Indian brands and its impact on consumer purchase. By SHARMA  PRATEEK JAYANT A0102210041 MBA (M&S) Class of 2012 Under the Supervision of Mrs. TEENA BAGGA FACULTY Department of Marketing In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Business Administration –Marketing & Sales AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL AMITY UNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH, SECTOR 125, NOIDA – 201303, UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA-2011 AMITY BUSINESS SCHOOL DECLARATION I, Sharma Prateek Jayant student of Masters of Business Administration from Amity Business School, Amity University Uttar Pradesh hereby declare that I have completed Dissertation on â€Å"Study of advertising appeals used by the top Indian brands and its impact on consumer purchase. † I further declare that the information presented in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge. Date: Sharma Prateek Jayant Enrollment No: A0102210041 MBA Class of 2010 Place: Noida AMITYUNIVERSITY UTTAR PRADESH AMITYBUSINESSSCHOOL CERTIFICATE Dissertation: Progress Review Stage 1 I, Mrs. Teena Bagga hereby certify that Sharma Prateek Jayant student of Masters of Business Administration at Amity Business School, Amity University Uttar Pradesh has completed first two chapters of dissertation on â€Å"Study of advertising appeals used by the top Indian brands and its impact on consumer purchase†, under my guidance Mrs. Teena Bagga Faculty Department of Marketing TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER- 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Advertising appeals: The Indian â€Å"TOP BRANDS† perspective 1. 2 Purpose of the study 1. 3 Context to the study CHAPTER- 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Advertising appeals: The Indian â€Å"TOP BRANDS† perspective. The reason to buy any product of any brand is derived by an advertising appeal. An advertising campaign can have more than one advertising appeal. Only one appeal can be used and it can have sub themes in an advertising campaign. The appeal must be unique and must give a positive impression about the product/brand to the target audience. Every appeal that is used by the brands in advertising is as per their competitors. Also, an important aspect of appeal is that it needs to be believable by the audience (Kumar, 1998). The audience tries to comprehend the advertisement and only then their purchase behavior gets inclined towards the brand. Only when the audience behavior is molded by the advertiser towards the brand, their purpose of advertisement is achieved. In order to do so advertisers understand the psychological aspects of the audience and then they try to develop the advertising appeal which can position their attitude towards the brand. For the advertiser it is very important to understand â€Å"How the diffusion of the message takes place in the target audience†. And in order to have a positive diffusion advertiser creates a favorable environment. Advertising mediums play an important role in the advertising message as it directly affects the mind of the target audience. These mediums can be Television, Radio, Internet, Print etc. Psychologists feel that all the human activities are based on the needs (Lamb et al. , 1992, Schewe, 1987). A consumer may have different types of needs like physiological, physical or latent. An individual who has a specific need always looks for the information from the marketing world. When there is a cue which is as per the need of the consumer, then an individual responds for the product/brand. Drivers that are present in individuals, vary at different levels. Consumers may be inclined towards the product because of the aura of prestige which is associated with the advertising appeals. Advertising appeal is the main central message in the advertising message. It arouses the desires and addresses the human need that can be satisfied by the product/brand which is advertised. Appeal is the underlying content in advertising. Advertising appeal and execution are usually interdependent. Advertising appeal can be used in all types of media but the execution style is different for different type of media. Advertising appeal is something which attracts the consumers and develops interest in esteem, sex, fear, security and sensory pleasure. Advertiser uses the word appeal to emphasize on the creativity. Commonly appeals persuade the consumer to invest in the product. Appeals not always have all the product attributes but they create an atmosphere where the target audience’s desires are evoked towards the product. For example, if there is a product for the housewives then the appeal would be related to family. The Indian top brands for the year 2011: India Rank (2011) | Brand Name| Category| | Amul| Milk Powder/Milk/Ice cream| 2| Kingfisher| Beer/Full-service airlines| 3| Big Bazaar| Retail| 4| ICICI Bank| Bank| 5| State Bank Of India| Bank| 6| Airtel| Mobile service provider| 7| LIC| Insurance| 8| Cafe Coffee Day| Coffee| 9| Titan| Watch| 10| Lakme| Cosmetics| SOURCE: Campaign Magazine which releases Asia’s top 1000 brand list every year. have had the best of the advertisi ng mixes with appeals reaching to the audience 1. 2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY To find out the extent to which consumer purchase gets affected by advertising appeals used by the top Indian brands. . 3 CONTEXT TO THE STUDY Everyday consumers are bombarded with different advertising campaigns but they do not respond to everything as they need something other than just tangibles. There is a need to explore something more than tangibles that can attract their attention. The top brands in India have been able to do this in an excellent manner and today they have reached the top of the charts for the same reason. They were able to do this by using appropriate advertising appeals in their advertising campaigns. CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE †¢ (Verma, 2009) No communication is complete without feedback or reaction. The intent behind advertising is to persuade consumers to purchase and repurchase the product over and over again, but does the consumer respond to all communications sent by the advertisers? The human brain has a limited processing capacity and consumers have the tendency to process the most useful and appealing information first. Advertisers use different types of appeals and demonstrations to attract and retain customers, but the literature review shows very less work on evaluating the differential impact of various types f appeals on consumer purchase decisions. This study empirically tests the differential influence various advertising appeals create on consumer purchase decisions. †¢ (J. Hornik, August 2010) Marketing managers and scholars have focused substantial attention on the role of advertising message appeal in the persuasion process. The most common appeals (fear, humor, sex, comparative, gain/loss frame, t wo or one sided, and metaphor) have been compared to determine their relative effectiveness. Separate analysis for each response variable, to assess the contribution of several moderating effects on the results has also been performed. A test of heterogeneity indicated the presence of moderators on observed relationships. To supplement the quantitative analysis, a qualitative comparative analysis has been done. Results show that the overall appeal effect between conditions is of small to moderate size and that profound differences exist between appeals while some moderating variables have significant effects on effect sizes in appeal studies. All methods provided the opportunity to obtain results of theoretical and practical interest. †¢ (Nathalie Dens, Sept. 2010) The aim of this study is to investigate interaction effects between branding strategy (new brand versus established brand), advertising execution strategies (informational, positive emotional and negative emotional) and product category involvement (low and high) on consumers’ attitudes towards the product, purchase intention and the (parent) brand. Two analyses are performed in which involvement is manipulated at product category and at individual level. The results show that in general, line extensions of established brands are preferred over new brands. Furthermore, advertising strategy has little impact on consumer responses to line extensions of familiar brands. The type of advertising strategy used does have a significant impact on product and brand attitude and purchase intention for new brands, where negative emotional appeals lead to significantly more negative responses. The results are further moderated by product category involvement. Informational appeals score especially well in high-involvement situations, whereas positive emotional appeals perform better in low-involvement situations. Interestingly, the differences between advertising appeals in both low- and high-involvement conditions are greater for new brands than for extensions. †¢ (Mishra, 2009) Everyday consumers are bombarded with different advertising campaigns but they do not respond as they need something other than tangibles. There is need to explore something more than tangibles that can attract their attention. This can be done by using appropriate advertising appeal in the advertising campaign. If advertising appeal is interesting then it grabs the attention of the customers. It was revealed that persuasiveness, distinctness, perfectness, fascinating, sensational, energetic, aesthetic, elegant and captivating were the factors that emerged for the advertising appeal and dimensions were energetic, sensational, persuasiveness, distinctness and captivating. Factor and dimensions are compared on the basis of gender. It was found that persuasiveness, perfectness, sensational factors and energetic, sensational and persuasiveness dimensions do not vary on the basis of gender as males and females both feel that these factors and dimensions are important but females perceive that distinctness factor and dimension and aesthetic factor is more important than males but for males fascinating factor is more important than the females. †¢ As per the books referred There are mainly two types of appeals rational and emotional appeals. Rational appeal addresses the consumer’s functional needs of the product. Kotler (2000) opined that rational appeal is based on logic and product are been sold by highlighting the product attributes, quality, its problem solving capacity and its performance. Rational appeals are informative in nature and it focuses on the suitability of the product. This appeal is used by consumer durables and in competitive advertising. There are different types of rational appeal like feature appeal that focuses on important traits and features of the product. Information content in such kind of advertisement is very rich. It is used by high involvement product. There is another type of appeal named as competitive advantage appeal which gives a comparative picture of two or more brands. Comparison can be direct or indirect depending upon the brand and the product category. Price appeal is another type of rational appeal which focuses on the price or value of the product. This appeal is also used during the festival season. News appeal is used when a new product is introduced in the market or if certain modifications are done in the existing products. When the message is to be communicated to a larger audience and it is the established brand then popularity appeal is used as it emphasizes on the experience of the satisfied consumers. Rational appeals are based on the logic and reason to buy to product. In the actual scenario both the appeals i. e. , rational and emotional appeals works together. Emotional appeals are woven with the sensation of fun, love, enjoyment, fear etc. Ramaswamy and Namakumari, 2002). Kotler (2000) opined that there could be positive emotions as well as negative emotions but in the advertising campaign negative emotions can be converted to positive emotions. Emotional appeal is the feeling associated with the product. There are certain dreams and hope which are present in the individual which works consciously or subconsciously and gives pleasant feeling in the individual’ s psyche. Emotions also help in arousing and directing the behavior of an individual (Morris, 1999). Emotions also affect the consumer’s memory. When the state of mind is excited or agitated then it prompts the consumer to buy the product (Chunawalla et al, 1998). Therefore, emotional appeals are known as transformational appeals as they transform the feelings of the consumers towards the product. It gives positive mood to the consumers as it is related to the psychological attribute of the consumer. Emotional appeals are more effective for the older market then the newer or the younger market. When the emotional appeals are used in the advertising then consumption pattern of the product is very enjoyable. Sex appeal is used in the advertisement of soaps Audience is attracted as the desire is evoked and then it helps in selling the product. Sex appeal mainly helps in attracting the opposite gender masculine or feminine (Wright, 2000). According to Bradley (1995) sex appeal considered to be an offence sometimes depending upon the culture and the country but if the sex appeal is not obscene then it is acceptable in the society. For the perfumes and cosmetics love appeal is used. These appeals are used more younger generation.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

For the US Gov. Exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

For the US Gov. Exam - Essay Example g laws, can neither of them consist with the ends of society and government, which men would not quit the freedom of the state of nature for, and tie themselves up under, were it not to preserve their lives, liberties and fortunes; and by stated rules of right and property to secure their peace and quiet.† Thomas Paine (1997, 6), another figure whose influence on early American thinkers cannot be understated, warned in his pamphlet Common Sense â€Å"the king is not to be trusted without being looked after, or in other words, a thirst for absolute power is the natural disease of the monarchy.† With anti-monarchist influences like Locke and Paine, it’s not wonders that the architects of the American constitution constructed a political system that significantly limited the powers of the executive branch and instituted a number of difficult-to-navigate checks and balances. Much debate surrounded the exact role of the President during the early constitutional debates that followed the American Revolution. However, it was universally agreed upon that a strong separation of powers was needed. Much of the debate surrounded exactly how powerful, or how weak, the executive branch, headed by the President, was to be. The founders of the American constitution agreed (MacDonald, 1994, 126) â€Å"that safety and ordered liberty cannot exist without competent government and that government without an executive authority is no government at all.† Ultimately, the founders agreed on a concept that would create a natural and permanent tension between the President, the chief executive, and the members of Congress who were responsible for the legislation of the nation’s laws. They did this be ensuring that the new constitution contained (Thach, 1969, 70)â€Å"no constitutional legal barrier which Congress could not at pleasure cross.† This intuit ional strength that the founders granted Congress would significantly diminish the powers of the American executive, especially when

Monday, August 12, 2019

Are people born Gay Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Are people born Gay - Essay Example My thesis statement is that, people are born gay and cannot change their sexual orientation. This essay will focus on this debate and the views of different writers for, or against this view. Approximately 2-5% of men are gay, and the statistics for women is half that of men. (Rahman & Wilson, 2003). The disparity here is explained by the fact that women are influenced by their culture as well as situations, unlike men. Nathaniel Lehrman (2005) stated that even after years of study, there is no evidence of a gay gene. The votes to normalize homosexuality seem to suggest that it is an inborn trait, but to him, this vote is political and not scientific. It is in the late 1970s that the term orientation began to be used in place of the word preference. This change he states has led many people to think that homosexuality is innate. The author sites examples of people who were previously engaged in gay relationships but had since stopped and are in stable relationships with the people of the opposite sex. Another explanation that he gives for his stand is that there is no clear description of what being gay is. Having attractions to the people of the same gender as you does not mean that you are gay. He uses this disparity to justify his belief that no one is born a homosexual. Nathaniel argues that the tests that claim that there is DNA proof to show that there are gay genes falls short of significance. The fact that there is no clear evidence pointing to the possibility of gay genes makes it hard to prove the same. According to research, some children who face maltreatment while younger become gay when they become adults. (Roberts & Koenen, 2013). Factors such as having a drunkard parent, parental mental illness and presence of a step-parent affect a child’s sexual orientation once they grow into adulthood. This study goes to show that there are other factors that may lead to one becoming gay, but the